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This background paper engages with issues of secondary education reform in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) since 2007 and uses the MasterCard framework of questions as a template for gathering evidence. The framework seeks answers in three broad areas of reform: curriculum, assessment/examination systems and national qualifications frameworks (NQFs). It specifically invited responses to the following questions: Curriculum- What kinds of curriculum reform have occurred in SSA since 2007?- How successful has the practical implementation of new curricula been?- Given the challenges, how can resource-constrained ministries implement curriculum reform?- To what extent has a/the new curriculum promoted 21st century skills (like creativity, critical thinking, cognitive flexibility and emotional intelligence), as well as employability and entrepreneurial skills? Assessment- How successful has assessment reform been? National Qualifications Framework - What is the status of implementation of NQFs across SSA?- Have the approaches to NQF implementation promoted learning and the acquisition of skills necessary for employment?To ensure greater inclusivity, and to solicit a wide range of perspectives, we have chosen to review as broad a spectrum of publications as possible. This has meant that we have included research papers that, more often than not, would have been excluded from similar types of reviews. These include graduate students' masters and doctoral theses; and research papers published in journals that are not widely recognised. The net effect of widening the pool of sources is that many more researchers from, and working in, institutions on the continent have been referenced or included in the bibliography. The evidence gathering processes involved six linked activities: x Setting the search parameters and undertaking an electronic search. vi x Reviewing the document titles and abstracts; and sifting and excluding nonrelevant documents. x Once the primary and secondary sources have been identified, using high frequency citations to identify researchers in the field for follow up processes. x Reviewing the wider scholarship of identified scholars to gather additional 'grey' literature. x Identifying case studies, based on the analysis of these preliminary sources. x Site visits and case study write-ups Two system case studies were selected for close analysis: South Africa and Ethiopia. South Africa was selected because of its experience of three separate waves of curriculum reform in the past two decades, the extensive documentation of these curriculum reforms and as one of the first systems in the world to have introduced a national qualifications framework. Ethiopia was selected as it represents a rapidly developing country in which secondary education is likely to play a key role. It was also selected because of its recent review of its secondary education curriculum and examination system.
This report presents the findings of the impact evaluation of the project 'African Climate Change and Resilience Alliance (ACCRA) in Ethiopia (phase 2)', which ran from 1 November 2011 to 31 December 2016 as part of the Oxfam GB's global CHASE Programme Partnership Arrangement (PPA4) portfolio. The project aimed to enhance governance systems and climate resilience, and to achieve climate justice - fairness towards vulnerable communities affected by climate change. It was implemented by Oxfam in Ethiopia, the lead partner of ACCRA in Ethiopia. The evaluation is part of Oxfam GB's Effectiveness Review series.
Sanitation behavior change is a notoriously complex intervention. In the harsh, remote environment of the Ethiopian lowlands, this is particularly so. Community-Led Total Sanitation and Hygiene (CLTSH) interventions, while successful in Ethiopia's densely populated highland areas, have never been implemented at scale in the lowlands. We learned that in these communities, dominated by (semi-) pastoralist groups, that the operating conditions for effective, sustained behavior change are highly variable. A Collaborating, Learning and Adapting (CLA) approach helped the program team define, pivot and re-design activities that addressed project effectiveness.Our experience is drawn from the USAID/Ethiopia-funded Lowland Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) Activity that works to accelerate access to improved WASH in three rural lowland regions: Afar, Somali, and Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples (SNNP). Mid-activity data review highlighted several disappointing results that prompted a program team rethink. With both the implementing team and USAID/Ethiopia interested in critical feedback to adapt their approaches, USAID Lowland WASH Activity adopted the CLA framework to address these challenges. Utilizing pause and reflect, strategic collaboration, adaptive management and M&E for learning, an intentional CLA process allowed for a virtuous cycle of learning to occur.While still too early to determine the full effect of the CLA approach on development outcomes, encouraging results have emerged. A stronger set of 'performance envelope' criteria allowed for better targeting and sustainable CLTSH interventions; adaptation of the communication strategy led to effective storytelling practices in local languages, and project insights led to the refinement of Open Defecation Free (ODF) certification in Somali to a more manageable village- instead of Kebele-level definition.
This situational analysis is about school to work transitions (SWT) in the sub-Saharan African context. We focus in particular on the transition from secondary education to work, including both general secondary education and secondary-level technical and vocational education and training (TVET). Secondary education is often framed as a conduit into tertiary education, but for many youths it is not. It is the last step in their educational trajectory, before or during which they may make the transition to work. This study is about how to best prepare youth enrolled in secondary school to transition to work and navigate a pathway to an employment trajectory that eventually leads to improved lives. We aim to provide a framework to structure thinking around school to work transitions, outline the context, identify the scope and the gaps in the knowledge base, and provide recommendations to guide future programming and policy on school to work transitions
Ethiopia is one of the poorest countries in the world and prone to both natural and man-made disasters. More than three-quarters of the population live in rural areas and depend on agriculture. Women are particularly vulnerable, lacking access to and control over land and other resources, and facing harmful social norms. Oxfam has worked in Ethiopia for many years, including on interventions to support smallholder production and marketing and to promote women's economic empowerment. One of these was the Coffee Value Chain project, in Oromia regional state, and the subject of this report.The report examines quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the project, and its findings underline the importance of understanding the wider context in which gender and care relations are both reproduced and negotiated.
This report examines the second phase of Oxfam's Women's Economic Empowerment and Care (We-Care) programme. The first phase focused on building evidence for influencing policy change on women's heavy and unequal unpaid care work in six countries. The second phase of the programme seeks to continue deepening the evidence base; strengthen influencing capacity on unpaid care; develop and test new strategies, resources and approaches; and capture and share learning with the development sector on effective influencing.The report also includes progress reports from three countries in which the programme is active: Uganda, Zimbabwe and Ethiopia.
Despite impressive economic growth recorded in Ethiopia over the past decade, chronic food insecurity affects many. The country's subsistence crop and livestock agriculture is vulnerable to climate change and rainfall variability. The Ethiopian Somali region is one of the regions worst affected. A shortage of rainfall in the region over the past three consecutive years has resulted in huge losses of livestock and internal displacement of people. Although the drought affects everyone, men and women experience the impacts of the drought differently. The objective of this gender analysis is to understand the different impacts of the drought on men, women, girls, and boys, and their different coping mechanisms and potentials, in order to design and deliver humanitarian interventions responsive to their different needs. The study was conducted in Somali region, in six kebeles (wards/towns) of six woredas (districts) in the Jarrar, Doolo, and Afder zones.
Institute for International Education;
The purpose of this report is to measure the successes of HER's Cohort One in achieving the program goals.The first section, "At a Glance", presents a brief overview of the key findings from the three chapters, as well as best practices and lessons learned from the pilot program beneficial for future HER cohorts and other programs. It also details the participants' activities after program graduation. The concluding section summarizes the best practices and lessons learned and draws conclusions from Cohort One's program experience.Three appendices offer technical and background information on the program. Appendix I analyzes key components of the HER program, with reflections on each component from the key stakeholders such as HER students, guardians, and mentors. Appendix II covers the education context in Ethiopia and the need for the HER program. It also presents key information about the two schools in the HER program: School A and School B. Finally, Appendix III describes the evaluation methodology and limitations.
This report is the first to be published by the project 'Institutionalising Gender in Emergencies', which is funded by the European Community Humanitarian Aid Office (ECHO) and implemented by Oxfam in Dominican Republic, Pakistan, Ethiopia and South Sudan. It is a gender analysis developed in collaboration with CARE Ethiopia and combines a desk review with primary field research in Ethiopia, focusing on the gendered effects of the drought brought by El Niño in 2015. These findings offer a starting point from which to improve gender-responsive approach to humanitarian action.The report makes recommendations relating to a range of emergency areas. The findings are to be used to influence change throughout the humanitarian sphere. The aim is for them to influence how programmes are planned, monitored and evaluated, and to ensure they incorporate gender as a central component and account for the varied impacts of the drought, and how the programme will address the different needs of men, women, girls and boys.
The Government of Ethiopia considers climate change to be one of its priorities in responding to the country's long-term development needs. The nation's widely acclaimed Climate Resilient Green Economy (CRGE) strategy has called for annual spending of $7.5bn. With federal budgetary resources for climate change relevant actions estimated to be in the order of $440m per year, and international sources adding an uncertain amount that may be in the tens of millions (USD) per year, there appears to be a major financing gap.Therefore, if the CRGE strategy is to be delivered, and the lives of the country's most vulnerable people made more resilient, much more effort needs to be exerted to mobilize additional resources both domestically and externally. In particular, international commitments on climate finance need to be realized. This is now a matter of urgency for Ethiopia, as it is for many other African States. Drawing on research by the Climate Science Centre of Addis University and the Overseas Development Institute, this policy brief, supported by the ACCRA programme, sets out recommendations to bridge the funding gap for climate financing in Ethiopia.
Ethiopia is facing a massive drought and food insecurity crisis. The impact of failed rains and droughts have been worsened by the 2015 El NiÃƒÂ±o, which itself has been supercharged by climate change. Urgent humanitarian action is needed to support millions of people who have lost food, water and livelihoods. And long-term investment is needed so that communities can become more resilient and reduce their vulnerability to weather events in the future.
Population Action International;
As global climate change unfolds, its effects are being felt disproportionately in the world's poorest countries and among the groups of people least able to cope. Many of the countries hardest hit by the effects of climate change also face rapid population growth, with their populations on track to double by 2050.Population Action International (PAI) and Miz-Hasab Research Center (MHRC), in collaboration with the Joint Global Change Research Institute (JGCRI), studied which groups are most vulnerable, what community members say they need to adapt, and the role of family planning and reproductive health in increasing resilience to climate change impacts.The study was carried out in 2008-2009 in peri-urban and rural areas of two regions in Ethiopia: the Oromia region and the Southern Nations, Nationalities and People's (SNNP) region.