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Migration Policy Institute;
This paper analyzes the impact of established Diaspora on the reduction of poverty, and identifies ways in which policy interventions, especially from donors of official development assistance, might strengthen that impact. The new policy interest in Diasporas reflects a broader concern with globalization, and specifically the very recent appreciation of the volume of remittances to developing countries by emigrant workers and their descendents. Remittances, however, are far from being the only vehicle for Diaspora influence on the incidence of poverty in their home countries.
Eritrea suffered four consecutive years of drought with an estimated 2.3 million people (67% of the population) affected in 2005. The objectives of each of these projects were: 1. Sustainable Livelihoods (ERIA44) improving the food and income security of 19,785 people. 2. Internally Displaced Person (IDP) Support (ERIA51) improving the agricultural production of 600 IDP households, and improving preparedness and response capacity. 3. Emergency Seed Distribution (ERIA56) increasing crop production in 1,683 households, and supporting response capacity. This final evaluation assesses the projects in terms of: impact on livelihoods; level of community participation and capacity building; partner co-ordination; challenges and threats; linking humanitarian to long term food and income security needs; and recommendations for future projects.
Open Society Institute;
Examines how conflicts have shaped the development of Internet, mobile, and other communications technologies and hybrid media in Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Somalia, and how diasporas have facilitated online political debates both at home and abroad.
CLTS Knowledge Hub;
La CLTS Knowledge Hub, basée à l'Institute of Development Studies, a organisé un atelier régional à Arusha en Tanzanie, du 16 au 20 avril 2018 avec l'aide de la SNV Tanzanie. L'événement a réuni les personnes impliquées dans la programmation de l'EAH en milieu rural dans huit pays de la région (Burundi, Érythrée, Éthiopie, Kenya, Malawi, Ouganda, Tanzanie et Zambie) aux côtés d'experts travaillant aux niveaux régional et mondial. Durant les cinq jours de l'atelier, les participants ont échangé leurs expériences, les innovations, les problèmes rencontrés et les acquis et ils ont recensé les manques de connaissances dans le but d'améliorer les capacités et l'apprentissage futur et d'arriver à un consensus sur la façon d'aller de l'avant. Par ailleurs, la SNV Tanzanie a facilité une visite d'étude dans ses zones du projet Assainissement durable et Hygiène pour Tous (SSH4A) dans les districts de Babati et Karatu.Cette note d'apprentissage présente les problèmes les plus communs et les obstacles à la réalisation de l'Objectif de développement durable (ODD) 6.2 que les participants à l'atelier ont identifiés dans toute la région. Elle résume les discussions qui se sont tenues toute la semaine, met en avant les pratiques prometteuses et considère des actions prioritaires pour aller de l'avant.
CLTS Knowledge Hub;
The CLTS Knowledge Hub, based at the Institute of Development Studies, convened a regional workshop in Arusha, Tanzania, 16-20 April 2018 with support from SNV Tanzania. The event brought together those engaged in rural WASH programming from eight countries across the region (Burundi, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia) alongside experts working at regional and global levels. Over the course of five days participants shared experiences, innovations, challenges and learning, and mapped gaps in knowledge with the aim of improving capacity and future learning, and building consensus on the way forward. SNV Tanzania also facilitated a field visit to its Sustainable Sanitation and Hygiene for All (SSH4A) project areas in Babati and Karatu districts.This learning brief presents the common challenges and barriers to achieving Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6.2 that the workshop participants identified across the region. It summarises discussions held across the week, highlights promising practices and considers priority actions moving forward.
Population Services International;
ObjectivesExplore youth's definitions of "trust"Establish criteria youth use to determine the trustworthiness of partnersIdentify types of individuals youth believe they can and cannot "trust"Examine trust's influence on sexual decision-making and STI/HIV risk perceptionIdentify how sexual partners violate trust and the effects on sexual decision-makingStudy designData were collected in October 2001 as part of a regional Behavior Change Communication (BCC) strategy in East and Southern Africa. Country programs chose to participate in research based on project priorities and levels of interest in participating in a regional BCC strategy. Four county programs agreed to collect and share data, Eritrea, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.A total of 33 focus groups were conducted. Research teams in each country used the same discussion guide and pretested the guide prior to data collection. Discussion groups lasted between an hour and an hour and a half, were audiotaped, and transcribed into English. Each research team conducted two discussion groups in the major urban area composed of the following strata: males 15-19 years, females 15-19 years, males 20-24 years, and females 20-24 years. The Zambia program conducted one additional focus group with males aged 15-19.FindingsExplore youth's definition of "trust" and criteria used to determine trustworthinessThe major components of trust did not vary greatly across countries. Youth in all countries placed a high value on sexual fidelity and its role in trusted partnerships. Youth believed that partners met through family or friends are more trustworthy than those met in bars or nightclubs. In addition, youth in all countries expressed that trusted partners must pass informal assessments, dress appropriately, demonstrate appropriate social conduct, talk sweetly to each other, come from the right neighborhood, meet one another's family, be punctual for appointments/dates, and remain emotionally committed to one another. Eritrean youth appeared to place greater importance on the roles that religion, virginity, and marriage (or intent to marry) play in establishing trust than youth from other countries.Differences in criteria for trust were more apparent by gender. In terms of testing partners' trustworthiness, females discussed passive ways of questioning partners, while males discussed elaborate methods for entrapping females in lies. Males were concerned with partners' sexual reputation and appearance. Females were primarily concerned with partners' emotional commitment, willingness to accept responsibility for pregnancies, and ability to display affection in public in order to demonstrate intimacy and trust.Identify types of individuals youth believe they can and cannot "trust"Across countries, youth place prospective partners into groups that can and cannot be trusted according to key attributes and behaviors. Similar to the findings above, most participants said that youth that come from good families, are well respected in the community, are religious, do not drink, avoid bars and nightclubs, and are faithful can be trusted. Youth believe that they cannot trust anyone outside of committed, monogamous relationships. Male participants added that virgins can be trusted.Examine trust's influence on sexual decision-making and STI/HIV risk perceptionYouth do not appear to take effective preventive measures with trusted partners. Trust can blind them to their risk for STIs/HIV and render them unwilling to explore partners' sexual histories. Sex usually occurs early in relationships and condom use remains low. When youth use condoms, they are more likely to incorporate them into casual than trusted relationships, or use them for pregnancy prevention rather than protection from STIs/HIV. Condoms are usually abandoned once relationships appear to be serious and partners fail to show signs or symptoms of STIs or HIV infection. There were few differences in risk perception and risk behavior across countries; however, male participants in Zambia reported that they discuss their sexual histories, while participants from other countries said that couples rarely discuss their sexual histories.Identify how sexual partners violate trust and the effects on sexual decision-makingInfidelity represents the most serious violation of trust and usually results in the end of relationships. A common theme across all countries was youth's refusal to learn from past experiences and apply them to future sexual decision-making. Even when trust is broken, youth fail to apply lessons learned to new relationships, repeating the same scenarios of trust, infidelity and exposure to STIs/HIV.Programmatic implicationsYouth must understand that partners' trustworthiness and character are independent of their risk for STIs/HIV. Although a checklist may help youth select a good partner, unprotected sex with this or any other person must be perceived as risky. Youth must also personalize their risk for STIs/HIV and avoid thinking that only people outside of their community are at risk for infection. It is likely that interpersonal communication campaigns or other community-level activities will help achieve an improved risk perception. Finally, in order to communicate new and appropriate levels of personal risk assessment, programs should strive to achieve broad social support, if not pressure for, consistent condom use, knowledge of one's own HIV status as well as that of all partners, and delay of sexual activity where possible.
This paper reviews the current emergencies, and the opportunities for peace, in five countries. Four of them fall within the fifteen poorest countries in the world. These countries are so desperately poor that war - and in Ethiopia, drought too - means they can no longer cope without much more international help.