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Center for Economic and Policy Research;
Donald Trump's trade wars have forced many of us to re-examine what we hope to see in trade policy. At least in rhetoric, he has made the trade deficit front and center on his trade agenda. Many of us have argued that the trade deficit has been a major factor in the loss of relatively high-paying manufacturing jobs. For this reason, there are some grounds for being sympathetic to Trump's approach. However, in other areas, like his promotion of intellectual property rights and his demands on rules for the digital economy, he is diametrically opposed to progressive goals in trade policy.
This essay examines these issues in some detail. It makes three main points:
The benefits from reducing the trade deficit, while still substantial, are not nearly as large as the damage caused by running large deficits in prior decades.
There is no reason that progressives should want stronger protections for intellectual property in trade deals. It is not "our" property at stake, but rather the property of large US corporations. We should be thinking about class, not country.
Rules on a digital economy need serious attention. We all have come to recognize the risks that social media outlets like Facebook and Twitter can present to democratic debate. Countries should not be deprived of the means to protect themselves from false stories being spread over these networks.
While Trump's trade agenda is not one that most progressives will choose to embrace, he has helped to open up the debate on these issues and increase the likelihood that trade may be set on a more progressive path than the one followed over the last four decades.
This report examines grantmaking in 2014 and 2015 for Latin America by large U.S.foundations, with a closer look at philanthropy for Central America.
Center for Economic and Policy Research;
The main purpose of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) was to extend health insurance coverage to more individuals. Another potential benefit of the ACA, however, was to free up workers to find jobs that better fit their needs, by ending their dependence on employer-provided health insurance. There is considerable evidence indicating that before the implementation of the ACA, many workers stayed in jobs that they otherwise would have left solely because they needed the health insurance provided by the employer. This was likely to be especially true of workers with children, workers who either have a disability or have a family member with a disability, and older workers. By increasing access to insurance outside of employment, either through Medicaid or the health care exchanges, the ACA made it easier for workers to get jobs that better fit their needs.
There was a substantial increase in voluntary part-time employment in the years immediately after the main provisions of the ACA took effect, which is evidence of this effect on the labor market. The rise in voluntary part-time employment was largest among young people and was especially pronounced for young women.
This study uses data from the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) to assess how people voluntarily employed part-time use the time freed up from work. The ATUS relies on detailed time diaries compiled by respondents to determine how people use their time.
Citizen's Committee for Children of New York;
Citizens' Committee for Children of New York (CCC) has worked over the last year to gather quantitative and qualitative data about the North Shore of Staten Island to provide a comprehensive assessment of the needs of children and families in the area, as well as the resources available to them. CCC's model for community-based research utilizes existing government data on child and family well-being and complements it by mapping community assets and elevating the voices of service providers and community members through a participatory research process. This work builds on our experience maintaining the nation's most comprehensive municipal-level database illustrating the well-being of children and families in New York City, Keeping Track Online.
In this report, we highlight both welcomed and worrisome trends districtwide and across the seven neighborhoods that make up the North Shore—Grymes Hill-Park Hill, Mariner's Harbor, Port Richmond, Stapleton, St. George-New Brighton, West Brighton, and Westerleigh—and compare these outcomes against borough and citywide averages.
In order to address the challenges faced by children and families on the North Shore—and in Staten Island broadly—residents and service providers have come together to engage in efforts to improve outcomes across the range of issues impacting child and family well-being. This includes several collective impact initiatives, a term describing a systematic approach to collaboration among organizations aligned by a common agenda, shared measurement systems, mutually reinforcing activities, continuous communication, and support from a backbone organization tasked with coordinating the partnership.
CCC's data collection and participatory research process are designed to inform and support efforts in the community to improve well-being for children and families. We believe that reliable data is a foundational element of effective advocacy, and that community engagement elevating the voices and concerns of residents is essential in identifying the challenges that need to be addressed. We are hopeful this report will be a useful tool as residents and service providers continue working to improve outcomes for children and families on the North Shore.
WSF Working Paper Series;
This working paper provides the formal output from the first workpackage of the TRANSWEL research project (of a total of five workpackages). It presents the main results from 7 months of research work, which ran from February-September 2015. TRANSWEL is a transnational comparative study of regimes of social security portability in the European Union. The transnational element of the study has two aspects: the project investigates portability of social security in 'the European Union' (or 'at EU level'), and between 4 transnational pairs of countries: Austria-Hungary,Germany-Bulgaria, Sweden-Estonia and UK-Poland. It compares social security portability for economically active mobile citizens in four policy areas: unemployment, family benefits, health and pensions.
Center for Economic and Policy Research;
It is ten years since we were at the peak of the financial crisis — the collapse of Lehman Brothers, an investment bank. This sent tremors throughout the world, and media outlets began talking about a return of the Great Depression. While the fear generated by politicians and media was able to get enough support for saving the financial industry, the country was left to deal with the painful fallout from a collapsed housing bubble. Millions lost their homes and jobs. Even a decade later, by some measures, most notably prime-age employment rates, the labor market has still not recovered.
This discussion makes several points concerning the bubble and its collapse. First and foremost, it argues that the primary story of the downturn was a collapsed housing bubble, not the financial crisis. Prior to the downturn, the housing bubble had been driving the economy, pushing residential construction to record levels as a share of GDP. The housing wealth effect also led to a consumption boom. The saving rate reached a record low. When the bubble burst, it was inevitable that these sources of demand would disappear and there were no easy options for replacing them, except very large government budget deficits.
Heartland Alliance National Initiatives on Poverty & Economic Opportunity;
Implementing the Individual Placement and Support (IPS) model boosts employment outcomes for transition-age youth facing barriers to employment. LifeWorks, a non-profit organization serving transition-age youth and their families in Austin, TX, realized that workforce models popular within the youth development field may not address the significant and complex challenges faced by their participants. LifeWorks staff began to look toward behavioral health approaches to employment and discovered the Individual Placement & Support model. This case study discusses how IPS offered LifeWorks a new approach to workforce support for youth that might better address the types of challenges their participants faced.
This report examines the distribution of unpaid care and domestic work in households in the Ugandan districts of Kaabong, Kabale and Kampala. It seeks to understand the connection between social norms and the gendered division of work, including how much time women, men, boys and girls spend on paid work and unpaid care work in a day, as well as how this time use varies between urban and rural areas and between the districts in the study. The authors look closely at childcare, who undertakes it and why. They also analyse what kinds of services are available in each district that might ease the care workload for women and girls.
The report makes recommendations for the Ugandan government and relative authorities on how they can recognize, reduce and redistribute care work through policy changes, labour-saving devices and technology, better infrastructure and the provision of care services.
This publication was written by Oxfam partners in Uganda (EPRC, UWONET and the School of Women and Gender Studies at Makerere University), in collaboration with Oxfam in Uganda and the WE-Care team.
Earning an income is a struggle for the residents of Za'atari refugee camp in Jordan, and women's economic participation is extremely low. Oxfam initiated the Lel-Haya (For Life) project in Za'atari to build the capacities of Syrian refugee women, both in vocational training and soft skills. A small number of women involved in the project were subsequently employed by a garment factory in northern Jordan. This briefing note highlights these women's experiences, the challenges they have faced and how they have overcome them.
Becker Friedman Institute for Economics at The University of Chicago;
We study how reported sexism in the population affects American women. Fixed-effects and TSLS estimates show that higher prevailing sexism where she was born (background sexism) and where she currently lives (residential sexism) both lower a woman's wages, labor force participation and ages of marriage and childbearing. We argue that background sexism affects outcomes through the influence of previously-internalized norms, and that estimated associations regarding specific percentiles and male versus female sexism suggest that residential sexism affects labor market outcomes through prejudice-based discrimination by men, and non-labor market outcomes through the influence of current norms of other women.
Emerging Practitioners in Philanthropy;
Dissonance & Disconnects: How entry and mid-level foundation staff see their futures, their institutions, and their field, examines the thoughts and feelings of early- and mid- career practitioners on philanthropy and their futures in it. The report focuses on themes including participants' experiences at work, the alignment between their institutions' practices and their values, and how participants see their futures in the sector. It is meant to support conversation among emerging leaders and senior executives about foundation practices and how they can better unlock talent up and down the org chart while also bringing foundations into deeper alignment with their values.