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Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network;
This document is part of the status report series of the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN) founded in 1995 as part of the International Coral Reef Initiative (ICRI) to document the ecological conditions of coral reefs, to strengthen monitoring efforts, and to link existing organisations and people working with coral reefs around the world.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO);
This paper is part of an ongoing collaboration between the World Bank and the United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization to raise awareness about the importance of water management in fragile systems and to propose strategic responses. It is important to better understand these dynamics to ensure that water does not add to fragility, but rather promotes stability, and contributes to resilience in the region. This paper calls for redoubling efforts towards sustainable and efficient management of water resources, reliable and affordable delivery of water services to all and protection from water-related catastrophes.
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP);
The report card, which is accompanied by 13 detailed supporting reviews, summarises current scientific understanding of climate change impacts on the region's marine environment. The document is intended to help Pacific Islanders and decision-makers to understand and respond to the likely impacts of marine climate change. The accessible report card format highlights what action is already being taken in the region and what further responses are needed. The reviews provide further information on each of the topics.
The 'Building Resilience in the Arid and Semi-Arid Lands of Northern Kenya' project was implemented in Turkana County, in Northern Kenya, between July 2012 and April 2015. The project was designed to build the resilience of project participants to a number of shocks and stresses: droughts - which threaten the area annually - floods and outbreaks of human and animal diseases on the one hand, and anthropocentric risks on the other hand, such as fire, livestock theft, and conflicts. The project worked at different levels to try and reduce households' vulnerability to these risks, through Community-Managed Disaster Risk Reduction (CMDRR) and integration of community-level plans and committees into the work of the county government. This Effectiveness Review used a quasi-experimental evaluation design to assess the impact of the project activities, at the household- and community-level. The results provide evidence that the project had had a positive impact on households' resilience capacities. This report is part of Oxfam's Effectiveness Review series.
John Templeton Foundation;
Throughout history and around the world, religious leaders and philosophers have extolled
the virtue of gratitude. Some have even described gratitude as "social glue" that fortifies
relationships—between friends, family, and romantic partners—and serves as the
backbone of human society.
But what exactly is gratitude? Where does it come from? Why do some people seem to be
naturally more grateful than others? And are there ways we can foster more feelings and
expressions of gratitude?
Over the past two decades scientists have made great strides toward understanding the
biological roots of gratitude, the various benefits that accompany gratitude, and the ways
that people can cultivate feelings of gratitude in their day-to-day lives. The studies
comprising this science of gratitude are the subject of this paper.
At a time when the global food system faces multiple and interlocking challenges, examining the business arrangements and structures that can lead to a more equitable distribution of value in food supply chains has never been more important. Through 12 case studies, this paper demonstrates the range of business arrangements and the diversity of ownership and governance structures that can drive more equitable outcomes.
Business structures that seek to balance the interests of different stakeholder groups offer an alternative to shareholder-based models. These alternative models can significantly improve the livelihoods of the most marginalized women and men in the global food system.
Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO (IOC-UNESCO);
'The Ocean is Losing its Breath' presents a summary of scientific experiments, observations and numerical models addressing the following questions: How has the oxygen content in the open ocean and coastal waters changed over the past century and through geological time? What are the mechanisms behind this oxygen decline? How is ocean oxygen content predicted to change over the rest of the twenty-first century? What are the consequences of low and declining oxygen concentrations in the marine environment? This document was prepared by a group of concerned scientists from across the world, the IOC expert group, the Global Ocean Oxygen Network GO2 NE, established in 2016, which is committed to providing a global and multidisciplinary view on deoxygenation, with a focus on understanding its various aspects and impacts.
Sustainable Sanitation Alliance;
Appropriate and adequate sanitation solutions are crucial for the protection of human health in emergencies. In recent years there has been an increasing number of sanitation innovations, appropriate for a variety of humanitarian contexts and a stronger sector focus on the entire sanitation service chain (from the toilet via collection and conveyance to the final treatment and safe disposal and/or reuse).Building on these developments, the Compendium of Sanitation Technologies in Emergencies provides a comprehensive, structured and user-friendly manual and planning guide for sanitation solutions in emergency settings. It compiles a wide range of information on tried and tested technologies in a single document and gives a systematic overview of existing and emerging sanitation technologies.This publication is primarily a capacity building tool and reference book. In addition, it supports and enables decision making by providing the necessary framework for developing a sanitation system design. It gives concise information on key decision criteria for each technology, facilitating the combination of technologies to come up with full sanitation system solutions. Furthermore this compendium prioritises linking the sanitation technology selection with relevant cross-cutting issues, thereby promoting access to safe sanitation for all.
New Philanthropy Capital (NPC);
Trusts and foundations are increasingly looking to become agents of social change themselves as well as funders of it—asking themselves whether providing more than direct services might make more of a difference. Two common ways that funders do this are through providing support to help organisations develop their capacity, and by using a funder's influence to advocate for change. Here we focus on the latter, looking at influencing practices of funders from around the world—exploring the methods that these take, the evidence for whether it works and how funders can approach impact measurement.
Endangered Species Research;
Penguins are the most threatened group of seabirds after albatrosses. Although penguins are regularly captured in fishing gear, the threat to penguins as a group has not yet been assessed. We reviewed both published and grey literature to identify the fishing gear types that penguins are most frequently recorded in, the most impacted species and, for these susceptible species, the relative importance of bycatch compared to other threats. While quantitative estimates of overall bycatch levels are difficult to obtain, this review highlights that, of the world's 18 species of penguins, 14 have been recorded as bycatch in fishing gear and that gillnets, and to a lesser extent trawls, are the gear types that pose the greatest threats to penguins. Bycatch is currently of greatest concern for yellow-eyed Megadyptes antipodes(Endangered), Humboldt Spheniscus humboldti (Vulnerable) and Magellanic Spheniscus magellanicus penguins (Near Threatened). Penguins face many threats; reducing bycatch mortality in fishing gear will greatly enhance the resilience of penguin populations to threats from habitat loss and climate change that are more difficult to address in the short term. Additional data are required to quantify the true extent of penguin bycatch, particularly for the most susceptible species. In the meantime, it is crucially important to manage the fisheries operating within known penguin foraging areas to reduce the risks to this already threatened group of seabirds.
Frontiers in Marine Science;
Understanding the horizontal and vertical habitat of olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea), a threatened species, is critical for determining regions for protection and relevant gear modifications that may effectively reduce bycatch, the largest threat to this species. Satellite transmitters were used to determine the movement and dive behavior of 21 female olive ridley turtles tagged in Pongara National Park, Gabon during the 2012, 2013, and 2015 nesting seasons. A switching state-space model was used to filter the tracking data and categorize the internesting and post-nesting movements. Gridded utilization distribution (UD) home range analysis of tracking data revealed that the entire core habitat occurred in the Komo Estuary during the internesting period. Within the Komo Estuary, 58% of this core UD occurred in shipping lanes. Dive data from the 2015 tagging season revealed that during the internesting period, turtles spent the majority of their time resting on the estuary seabed. Approximately 20% of all dive time was spent on the bottom and all maximum dive depths corresponded to the depth of the seabed, indicating that bottom set gear during the internesting period may pose the greatest potential for fisheries interactions. National parks currently protect many of the nesting sites and the Gabon Bleu initiative has formally designated 10 new marine parks and a network of community and industrial fishing zones; this data was a layer used in determining the park and zone boundaries. Shared use of the estuary by fisheries, shipping, and olive ridley turtles creates a need for management measures to reduce interactions. Thus, the results from this study can further provide detailed information that can be used to support the development of evidence-based management plans.
Exceptional NGOs rely on exceptional leaders. In the Indian social sector, a senior team's competence is often the make-or-break factor in an organization's ability to make strides toward such ambitious goals as providing equitable healthcare, ensuring high-quality education for children, or providing access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. Yet widespread doubts persist about whether there is sufficient investment in NGO leadership teams to achieve these important outcomes.
Against this backdrop, The Bridgespan Group, with support from Omidyar Network, undertook what we believe is the first data-driven study of NGO leadership development in India. We looked into NGOs' efforts to strengthen their leaders' skill sets and build their leadership bench.
Our findings were sobering. Drawing on a survey of approximately 250 leaders from Indian NGOs and the Indian offices of international NGOs—supplemented with more than 50 interviews with funders, intermediaries, and NGO executives, as well as secondary research—we found a systemic gap between the sector's leadership development aspirations, and the reality of its investments and efforts.
The consequences of this underinvestment are threefold:
Overdependence on individual leaders, often founders
Lack of a second line of leadership
Limited organizational leadership skills such as change management and strategic thinking
Reflecting this, 53 percent of surveyed NGOs do not feel confident that anyone internally can effectively lead their organizations in the absence of their senior-most leaders.
Yet we also found cause for optimism. Even as NGOs struggle to attract and sustain strong leadership teams, some NGOs and funders are taking replicable steps to close the gap. Their approaches and ideas—detailed in Sections IV and V—hold promise for both bolstering leadership teams and nurturing the next generation of senior talent.
The implications represent a threat to these organizations' ability to sustain and scale impact. A full 97 percent of survey respondents say leadership development is vital to their organizations' success, a belief echoed by funders. But practitioners and funders also say they invest little time and resources in cultivating leaders. Indeed, more than half the NGOs polled do not believe they are capable of recruiting, developing, and transitioning leaders. And more than 50 percent report their organizations have not received any funding to develop leaders in the past two years.